First Capital of Egypt“The first capital of Dynastic Egypt was Thinis.  It was the capital from the beginning of the unification of the two lands (Sem-tawy) until the capital was moved to Men-nefer in the third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom”(Memphis). Men-nefer, which became one of the most cities in world in its time, means the beautiful and the established. Today we know it as Memphis.  Men-nefer is the Egyptian name and Memphis is the Greek name.  The original name of the capital city was called Ineb-hedj. “It translates to mean “white wall”. Men-nefer was originally the name of King Pepi I’s pyramid (located at Saqqara) of the 6th dynasty”(Ancient Egypt). The name later became known for the entire capital city. Thus city became known as Men-nefer in the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom.

In Men-nefer the chief deity was named Ptah.  Thus we get the name Het-Ka-Ptah, which means the House of Ptah or the House of the spirit or double of Ptah, Het meaning house, Ka meaning spirit or double and Ptah, creator Neter that spoke all things into existence. “When the Greeks came into Men-nefer they learned of the Egyptian term Het-Ka-Ptah, and called it Aigyptos, which is where we get the name Egypt. Het-Ka-Ptah (Aigyptos) was not the name of the country only for a particular area. The name that Ancient Egyptians called their country was Kemet”(Memphis). Kemet or Kmt was named as such because of the black soil of the country. The word Kmt means black.

Works Cited

“Memphis: The First Capital of Egypt.” Memphis: The First Capital of Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“The Ancient Egypt Site.” The Ancient Egypt Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

“LookLex / Egypt / Memphis.” LookLex / Egypt / Memphis. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.


How Many Countries does the Nile Flow into?

The Nile flows through 10 modern day African countries:  Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. The Nile is the longest river in the world with a length of over 4100 miles.  It’s unique because it flows from south to north and not north to south like other rivers. “It in east central Africa in Burundi from the Luvironza River where then it goes to Tanzania and eventually flows into Lake Victoria.  It to flow north and becomes the White Nile where it meets the Blue Nile in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital”(new geography). The joining of the Blue and White Nile creates Nile proper where it continues its journey into its northernmost country, Egypt and into the Mediterranean Sea. 

“The Nile coming from Ethiopia flowing down into Sudan is called the Blue Nile because of its dark color, which is produced because of the eroding of the fertile soil that exists because of the river’s high currents; one hundred and forty tons of fertile silt flows from the Blue Nile to the Mediterranean Sea”(river flow). It was this fertile that was the lifeline of the Ancient Egyptians.  The Source of the Blue Nile is Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia.

Works Cited

“The Nile Flows North.” N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“Rivers That Flow North.” Rivers That Flow North. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“The Black Land – The Gift of the Nile.” Nile River. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“Nile River Countries Consider Cooperative Framework Agreement.” VOA. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

Ancient Egyptian and Nile River

The word Nile comes from the Greek word neilos, which means river valley.  In pre-dynastic times the Nile was called Hapi. “In ancient times Hapi was known as the god of Nile. In antiquity, what we call Egypt was divided into two parts, Lower and Upper Egypt. Just as Egypt was divided into two parts, so was the Nile divided into two parts” (Britannica).  Because Hapi was the god of Nile, he also had two aspects. 

In Upper Egypt (in the South) he was known as Hap-Reset and in Lower Egypt (in the North) he was known as Hap-Meht. Together they’re being depicted pouring water out of a vase. “They are also being depicted symbolically tying the two lands together with the lotus and the papyrus plants in a knot on a sema (a lung and a windpipe), the glyph for union in the Egyptian hieroglyph”(Britannica).  The Lotus plant represents the Upper Egypt and the papyrus represents Lower Egypt. During the Dynastic Period, the Ancient Egyptians called the Nile River, Iteru (meaning Great

“The major sources of the Nile River in Egypt are the White Nile, the Blue Nile, the Atbara River, and Lake Victoria in Uganda and Tanzania”(Egypt tour). The tributaries are rooted in the Ethiopian Highlands, where the monsoon rains would come every year and flood the Nile. Eighty-four percent of the Nile River that reaches the country we call Egypt, comes from the Ethiopian highlands through the Blue Nile. The White Nile’s source comes from Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world. It must be noted the name of the Lake before the British arrived was Nalubaale; meaning the mother of the spirits, in the Luganda language (Bantu) of Uganda. The source of Nile has its beginnings in Burundi, East Central Africa.

Works Cited

“Nile River (river, Africa).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“The Nile River.” The Nile River. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

“Nile River Informative Tour.” : Location and Climate of Nile River. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

” Critical Thinking Activity.” The Nile River. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

Predynastic Egypt

The Badarians go back to at about 4500 B.C. or maybe even further.

The archaeologists call these people Badarians because they found their remains in the town of Al-Badari. “This is the oldest known Egyptian culture found in the Egyptian borders.Then we have the Naqada culture” (Maisey).  The Naqada came in 3 phases. Naqada I c. 4000-3200 B.C.) in Upper Egypt.

Naqada II (c. 3500 – 3200 B.C.)  At this time there was a change taking place in the culture.  An elite class had evolved, along with chieftainship. “During this time, cemeteries for a few of them were much larger and the places of dwelling had increased in size” (Maisey).

Naqada III (c3300 – 3000) B.C.)  is the last phase before Dynastic Egypt comes into  In this phase hydraulic irrigation infrastructure, such as canals and levees were built. Central African tool designs were found at Naqada, Badari, and Faiyum archaeological sites.  

Works Cited

“Pre-history Africa & the Badarian Culture.” Pre-history Africa & the Badarian Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“Badarians Ancient Egyptian Civilization.” By Emele Maisey. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

“Prehistoric Egypt.” – Paleolithic-Neolithic-The Badarians-Predynastic-Race. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

Ancient Egyptian

The Ancient Egyptian civilization is known to be one the greatest, if not the greatest civilization in recorded time. From the time of the unification of the two lands in c. 3200 B.C., until the coming of Alexander in 332 B.C., the Egyptian civilization had stood for nearly 3000 years.  One must consider (and this is not just the belief of the author) that the Nile Valley civilization gave birth to the Egyptian civilization and not the other around.  The Ancient Egyptians tell us that they came from the south and that their origin is from the land of Punt, which they called Ta-Neter, the land of the The Egyptians in their writing tell us about numerous voyages that were made to the land of Punt.  Based upon the information that’s available to us, we know that the  Ancient Egyptians had been making voyages to the land of Punt as early as the 5th Dynasty and as late as the 20th Dynasty.  One of the voyages took place in the 18th Dynasty during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. 

It is described on the walls at Queen Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el Beheri in modern day Luxor, Egypt.  The scenes depict 5 ship loads of men led by Captain Nehsi, going to the land of Punt for trade and being greeted by King Parakhu and Queen Aty his wife. Most Egyptologists believe that the land of Punt is south of Nubia and based upon archaeological evidence; it’s either in the Sudan or Eritrea. Ian Shaw in the Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (2000) says, “There is still some debate regarding the precise location of Punt, which was once identified with the region of Somalia.  A strong has now been made for its location in either southern Sudan or the Eritrean region of Ethiopia, where the indigenous plants and animals equate most closely with those depicted in the Egyptian reliefs and paintings.” 

Works Cited

“Introduction.” Introduction. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

“Ancient Egypt.” A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.

“The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.” Oxford Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

“Psychic Medium & Author Spiritman Joseph Tittel: King Tut Exhibit, Ancient Egypt & Past Lives.” Psychic Medium & Author Spiritman Joseph Tittel: King Tut Exhibit, Ancient Egypt & Past Lives. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a huge kingdom in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty that Ptolemy I founded after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. “The Ptolemaic Kingdom was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I, who declared himself Pharaoh Egypt and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia” (AKN solution). Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade.

The first part of Ptolemy I’s reign was dominated by the Wars of the Diadochi between the various successor states to the empire of Alexander. His first object was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. Within a few years he had gained of Libya, Coele-Syria, and Cyprus. When Antigonus, ruler of Syria, tried to reunite Alexander’s empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. In 312 BC, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza.

When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only eighteen. “She reigned as Queen “Philopator” and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39. The death of the Ptolemies power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire” (AKN solution). Having little choice, and one city after another falling to Macedon and the Seleucid Empire, the Ptolemies decided to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted over 150 years. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was even declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII, had to pay tribute to the Romans to keep them away from his Kingdom. Upon his death, the fall of the Dynasty seemed even closer.

Works Cited

“Egypt: History – Ptolemaic Dynasty.” Egypt: History – Ptolemaic Dynasty. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Caesar the Day.” Caesar the Day. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“The Kings of the North and the South – A Detailed Commentary on Daniel 10 to 12.”The Kings of the North and the South – A Detailed Commentary on Daniel 10 to 12. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Thread: Roma Surrectum 2.0 Preview: The Ptolemaic Kingdom.” Total War Center Forums RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Holy Trinity of Waset

Amen or Amun means to be hidden or unseen, was one of the ogdoad in Khmunu (Hermopolis).  Amen was a ram headed god that was merged with the god Ra and became known as the King of the gods. 

Mut is the wife of Amen and the mother of Khonsu.  In the Egyptian Hieroglyph her name means mother.  She is depicted wearing a white vulture as her crown.  She became known as the cosmic mother that all things were derived from.  His main of worship is at Karnak in Luxor, the city the Ancient called Waset.

Khonsu is the son of Amen and Mut.  He is depicted wearing a crescent moon on his head and is associated with time.  It is believed that his name means traveler. 

Amenta – the underworld

Ptah – Chief deity of Men-nefer (Memphis), known as the creator god.  The god of Arts and Crafts, one of his titles is the grand Architect of the universe.  It is he who spoke things into existence.  Known as the Noble Djed, he had no mother or father.  He is the opener, the self created one. 

Djed is pillar representing stability and is the backbone of Osiris.  The djed was also associated with the gods Ptah, Ta-tenen, and Sokar.  By the Middle Kingdom, a triad had emerged called Ptah-Sokar-Ausar (Osiris). 

Ta means land or place.

Ta-tenen, a fertility god (depicted as green), is the god of the primordial hill who was merged with the god Ptah.  Ta-tenen means risen or elevated land.  He is also associated with djed pillar.  When Ta-tenen was merged with Ptah they became known as Ptah-Ta-tenen. 

Apis is the sacred bull at Memphis, the god of strength and fertility.   He was known for renewal of life of the god Ptah and the representative of him on earth.  Therefore he was the mediator between Ptah (Creator god) and humans.  In death he was associated with the god Ausar (Osiris) and became known as Ausar-apis i.e. Serapis.

Sokar (Seker) is a necropolis deity at Memphis, probably where the name Saqqara originates.  He also was associated with Osiris, the god of the underworld.  Sokar, a falcon headed god, merged with Ptah in the Old kingdom and became known as the Ptah-Sokar.

primeval waters of chaos.

Heh – One of the Ogdoad that represented formlessness and endlessness.  Heh existed before the creation.

Hehet is one the Ogdoad that represented formlessness and endlessness



Amen – One of the Ogdaod and whose name means the hidden and concealed


Atum was a deity that is worshiped in Heliopolis, the city that the ancient Egyptian called Anu or Annu.  His named is derived from tem, which means complete or finish.  Therefore Atum is associated with the completeness of matter.  He spit (gave birth to) the twins, Shu (god of the air) and Tefnut (goddess of moisture); his two first born.

Shu – god of the air

Tefnut goddess of moisture

Geb – god of the earth

Nut – goddess of the sky and the wife of Geb.  She is the daughter Shu and Tefnut.   Her name means the night.

Set – The older brother to Osiris, Set became the embodiment of evil.  He killed his brother Osiris and chopped him up into 14 pieces.  He is a representation of the desert that lies outside the fertile Nile.  Set is also a storm deity.  He is called Seth in Greek.

Heru is the son Ausar and Auset.  His name means he who is above.  His symbol is the falcon and he is associated with kingship.  He is known as the god that unified the two lands.  One of his titles is Herusemtaui, which means Heru the unifier of the two lands.

Maat is the god truth.  Maat represents truth, order, balance, reciprocity, harmony, justice, and propriety.  Her name means to measure.

Tehuti is the god wisdom of the Ancient Egypt.  Tehuti who the Greeks call Thoth is the god of Writing and the Arts and Sciences.  He was known to be the husband of the goddess Maat.  The name Tehuti comes from Tehu, which means to measure, to weigh, to compute and ti, which means duality.  The Greeks associated him with their god Hermes. 

Ra, who is known as the god light, his sacred city is the city of Annu, called Heliopolis by the Greeks.  Ra is the father god and comes in many forms.  He is a part of the godhead called AmunRa.  In the sacred city of Annu (Heliopolis) it is taught that Ra divides himself into 9 aspects or 9 neters (gods).  This is called the Ennead. 

Ogdoad – eight primordial deities that gave birth to Ra.  The Ogdoad was sacred at the city of Khmunu.  The Greeks called Khmunu, Hermopolis.  Khmunu means the city of the eight and Hermopolis means the city of Hermes.  The word Ogdoad also means eight.

Hermopolis, the Greek name for Egyptian city Khmunu, is one the four cosmological centers of Ancient Egypt.  It was sacred to the god Tehuti and the Ogdoad.

Hieroglyphs – The sacred writings of the Ancient Egyptians that were on the walls of temples, tombs, pyramids and etc.  The world hieroglyph comes from the Greek word hieroglyphs  meaning sacred carvings or priestly writing.  

Works Cited

“App Review: Reiner Knizia’s Ra.” TUAW. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Atum, A Creator Deity.” :: SmiteFire. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Apis.” Apis. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Secret of the Ankh.” Secret of the Ankh. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Nebthet.” Nebthet. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Nassif, Michael. “Ancient Egyptian.” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Persian Empire

The Persian Empire was a western empire in Western Asia founded in the 6th century B.C by Cyrus the Great. The empire was also called Achaemenid Empire after the King Achaemenes who ruled Persia from 705 BC till 675 BC. In 500 BC the empire became very powerful and they began to expand and conquer other countries. They took over from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece. At this time it became the largest ancient empire that have been yet made. They began to conquer a lot of countries until they reached Egypt and they took it over as well.

They took over Egypt after defeating Psamtik III who was the last pharaoh of the 26th dynasty. Cambyses II of Persia defeated him in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 BC. After the defeat, Egypt was joined with and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. This was the first period that Persian rule over Egypt and it was the beginning of the 27th dynasty and it ended in 402 BC. After an interval of independence, “Artaxerxes III who ruled between 358 and 338 BC came and conquered Egypt specifically the Nile Valley in order to start another period, which is called the thirty-first dynasty of Egypt” (Persian Empire).

Cambyses led three unsuccessful military movements in Africa. He failed against the Carthage, the Siwa oasis and Nubia. He stayed in Egypt until 522 BC and he decided to go back to Persia and he died on his way back. Herodotus was one of the first people to describe Cambyses rule, in his books he described him as mad and cruel. In order to regain the support of the powerful priestly class, Darius I cancelled Cambyses law.  Diodorus stated that Darius was the sixth and last lawmaker or creator for Egypt. In third year of his reign, Darius ordered his satrap in Egypt, Aryandes, to bring together wise men with the soldiers and priests in order to organize the legal system that had been use until the year 44 of Ahmose II. 

Work Cited

“Achaemenid Persian Rule over Egypt: 525-404 BC.” Achaemenid Persian Rule over Egypt: 525-404 BC. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Persian Empire.” Persian Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.” The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.). N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Achaemenids.” The. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

“Cyrus’ Paradise.” Cyrus Paradise. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Post #1

There are couple strengths, weaknesses and improvements throughout the semester. I feel that my strengths are organization and citation. I can make my format very good and even perfect. Also I can organize the essay very good and make it flow perfectly. My weaknesses are verb tenses, sometimes I get mixed up in the verb tenses. Also sometimes I feel that I am weak in punctuation for example run on sentences. I feel like grammar is my most improvement part of writing until now in the semester “Although personally I am quite content with existing explosives, I feel we must not stand in the path of improvement” (Churchill).

Works Cited

BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.